Charles Edwin Woodrow Bean

Charles Bean on the deck of the Orvieto

Rank

Honorary Captain

Roll title

Attached to 1st Division Headquarters

Convoy ship

HMAT Orvieto

Childhood portrait of Charles Bean.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A05400

Charles Edward Woodrow Bean was born on 18 November 1879 in Bathurst, New South Wales. In 1889, his family moved to England where he attended the Brentwood School in Essex, then Clifton College in Bristol. 

While at Clifton, Bean developed an interest in literature and in 1898 won a scholarship to Hertford College, Oxford, to read classics. He graduated with second-class honours in 1902 and went on to study law, being called to the Bar of the Inner Temple in 1903. For a short time he taught at his old school, Brentwood, before becoming a tutor in Tenerife.

Bean returned to Australia in 1904.  He was admitted to the New South Wales Bar and retained his parallel passions for teaching and writing.  He was an assistant master at Sydney Grammar School and wrote some articles for the Evening News, then edited by Andrew ‘Banjo’ Paterson.  

Between 1905 and 1907, he travelled extensively around New South Wales as a barrister’s assistant and wrote a book entitled The Impressions of a New Chum.  Though he failed to find a publisher, the Sydney Morning Herald printed a series of articles from his book in mid-1907. Likely as a result of this success, Bean resolved to focus on his writing career and spent four months learning shorthand before joining the Sydney Morning Herald as a junior reporter. In 1908, his major assignment was as a special correspondent on HMS Powerful, the flagship of the Royal Navy squadron in Australia, on a voyage to Norfolk Island, Fiji and finally Auckland to meet the American Fleet.  He compiled his articles into an expanded volume entitled With the Flagship in the South, which he published the following year at his own expense.  Within the book, he argued for ‘Australia and New Zealand … to have navies and flagships of their own’.

After a series of articles on the wool industry, he transferred to London in 1910 to report on the construction of what would become HMAS Australia, the powerful flagship of the new Royal Australian Navy, and two other warships, HMAS Sydney and HMAS Melbourne. In 1913 he turned these reports into another book, Flagships Three.

By mid-1914, Bean was writing articles about the war crisis unfolding in Europe. A month after war broke out in August 1914, the British government invited each dominion to attach an official war correspondent to their force. George Pearce, the Australian Minister for Defence, asked the Australian Journalists’ Association to nominate their preferred candidate. Bean won the ballot and became Australia’s official war correspondent. He was appointed to the AIF on 28 September 1914.

Charles and one of his younger brothers, John (known as Jack or Jock), who also went to Gallipoli.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A05393

HMAT Orvieto.

Courtesy of the Western Australian Museum MHK D1 765

Bean embarked at Port Melbourne on 21 October 1914 on board HMAT Orvieto. His mother and father had travelled from Tasmania to see both he and his brother John depart. After a five-day passage, Orvieto arrived in King George Sound, Albany, on 26 October 1914. The ship set sail with the First Convoy on 1 November, destined for Egypt. 

As the Australian official war correspondent, Bean was regarded as a captain. As such, he received a batman (Arthur Bazley), an officer’s salary, a horse and rations. He wore a copy of an officer’s uniform but no badges.

Aboard ship, Bean dined with Captain Arthur Gordon Smith and AIF officers, but spent much of his time keeping up his diaries and writing articles for the morning and evening papers.  He wrote an article on the encounter between HMAS Sydney and the German raider SMS Emden which was printed in Australian papers on 4 December. He also found time to take part in an Australia vs England cricket match – which Australia lost.

The Orvieto reached Suez on 1 December 1914 and passed through the canal. It docked at Alexandria on the morning of 3 December and disembarked troops. 

After landing in Egypt, Bean prepared a small pamphlet for the troops titled What to Know in Egypt: A Guide for Australasian Soldiers. All proceeds from the sale of the pamphlet went to the Red Cross Society.

He was based at Mena Camp, just outside Cairo, with the 1st Australian Division. On New Year’s Day 1915, Bean and fellow journalist Phillip Schuler climbed one of the pyramids. 

Before Christmas Bean had penned an article, at the request of Major General Sir William Bridges, which highlighted the risk that Australian troops could lose their good reputation through their rowdy behaviour in Egypt. This was very unpopular with the men, many of whom subsequently gave him a hard time. 

HMAT Orvieto leaving Port Melbourne. The crowd watching the ship depart had rushed the pier. The photograph was taken by Charles Bean.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial G01539

Soldiers receiving instruction on the deck of HMAT Orvieto

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial PS0012

Australian troops disembarking from HMAT Orvieto at Alexandria, Egypt.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial H02030

Bean outside his tent at Mena Camp, Egypt.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A05381

Charles outside his tent at Mena Camp, Egypt

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial PS1390

Charles atop one of the pyramids on New Year's Day 1915, photographed by fellow journalist Phillip Schuler.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial PS1399

Bean and Schuler (both behind the stand) take notes on Sir George Reid’s speech to the troops at Mena Camp in December 1914. Reid, a former Australian prime minister, was the High Commissioner for Australia in England.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial G01603

A group portrait of staff and officers at Mena Camp, Egypt. Charles Bean is at the far left of the back row, and Bridges is sixth from the left in the front row (beside Lieutenant Colonel Neville Howse VC, fifth from left).

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A00712A

Bean riding a donkey on the island of Imbros, 1915. Behind him is the famous British war correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A05382

On 10 April, Bean boarded the Minnewaska, bound for the Dardanelles. He landed on Gallipoli around 10 am on 25 April 1915, about five and a half hours after the first troops had gone ashore. His account of the landing appeared in Australian newspapers on 15 May; however British correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett beat him into print, his story running on 8 May. Bean’s report, which had been held up in Alexandria, was a more sober and precise account.  He had been much closer to the action and was ashore almost 12 hours ahead of Ashmead-Bartlett, who watched the landing from the deck of a ship. Both accounts were energetically circulated, and also distributed in a pamphlet to Australian schools. 

In early May, Bean was with two ANZAC brigades at Krithia, Cape Helles, and witnessed their unsuccessful attack there. 

While he was in and around Tommy’s Trench on the night of 8 May, Bean tended to the wounded. The area was then under heavy fire. He rescued one man who had been shot in the leg and helped him back into the relative safety of the trench; later, he dragged another man, wounded in both legs, to ‘the nearest thing to a dimple in the ground’ he could find, and used packs to protect him. He thought the man was too badly injured to survive. (It is not known whether he did.) Bean was recommended for a Military Cross, but as a civilian was not eligible to receive a military decoration. However, he was Mentioned in Despatches. 

Bean remained on the peninsula for the duration of the campaign, leaving only a couple of days before the main body of troops. His diaries of the fighting on Gallipoli make reference to Albert Jacka’s Victoria Cross won at Courtney’s Post, the battles at Chunuk Bair, Lone Pine, The Nek and Hill 60, and give a detailed account of the successful evacuation in December.

The only correspondent to stay on the peninsula for the whole campaign, Bean was often near the front line.  On one occasion, just before the fateful charge at The Nek at the start of the August offensive, he was wounded. He was known as a brave, conscientious and accurate reporter. 

Bean at the front line at Helles in May 1915.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial G00967B

Bean’s dug-out on Gallipoli.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial G01284

Bean watches an Australian advance near Martinpuich in France, 26 February 1917

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial E00246

After leaving Gallipoli, Bean travelled with the AIF to France, where he continued to cover the Australians’ efforts. His extensive diaries refer to the terrible fighting at Pozières, Fromelles, Bullecourt, Passchendaele and Messines. Unlike at Gallipoli, he did not live in the trenches in France but instead went up to the lines each day from a billet behind the line. 

Bean looks out over a devastated area of the old Somme battlefield, 1916

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial E00586

Bean with a group of Australian officers, Flêtre, France, in late December 1917.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial E04495

Bean working on the official history in his study at Victoria Barracks, Sydney, c. 1935.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A05389

Early in 1919, Bean led the Australian Historical Mission back to Gallipoli in order to answer some unsolved puzzles about the campaign, collect relics of the fighting, and create an artistic and photographic record. While on the peninsula, Bean was also expected to report on the state of Australian graves and determine what work needed to be done to identify and maintain them. Bean’s account of the Historical Mission’s work, Gallipoli Mission (1948) is one of his finest works.

On his way back to Australia, Bean drafted a proposal for both an official Australian history of the war and a national memorial to honour the Australian dead. He had originally conceived the idea of an Australian war memorial while in France in 1917.

In 1921 Bean married Ethel Young, known as ‘Effie’, and with the help of Arthur Bazley, who had served as his batman throughout the war, wrote six of 12 volumes of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. In later years, he also composed a condensed version of the official history, Anzac to Amiens, which was published in 1946, and Two Men I Knew about William Bridges and Brudenell White, published in 1957. 

Along with John Treloar, who had led the Australian War Records Section set up during the war to collect relics, photographs, and official and private records, Bean was responsible for the creation of the Australian War Memorial which opened on Remembrance Day 1941.

In 1964 Bean was admitted to Sydney’s Concord Repatriation General Hospital, he died on 30 August 1968. 

References

Australian Dictionary of Biography, Bean, Charles Edwin (1879–1968)

Australian War Memorial: Bean, C. E. W., War Diaries, AWM38, 3DRL 606

Bean, CEW c. 1909, With the Flagship in the South, T. Werner Laurie, London

Fewster, Kevin ed., 2009, Bean’s Gallipoli: The Diaries of Australia’s Official War Correspondent, Allen & Unwin, New South Wales

McCarthy, Dudley, 1983, Gallipoli to the Somme: The Story of C.E.W. Bean, John Ferguson, Sydnen

National Archives of Australia: Australian Imperial Force, Base Records Office; B2455, Charles Edwin Woodrow Bean’s First Australian Imperial Force personnel dossier, 1914-1920; BEAN C E W, 1914-1920

Winter, Denis, 1992 Making the Legend: The Writings of C.E.W. Bean, University of Queensland Press, Queensland

Bean and Effie at Tuggeranong homestead, near Canberra.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial A05398

Charles and Effie with their adopted daughter, Joyce, and Violet Gibbins, headmistress of Osborne Ladies College, Blackheath, New South Wales, where Joyce was a pupil.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial P03788.002

Bean escorts Her Majesty the Queen on a visit to the Australian War Memorial in 1954.

Courtesy of the Australian War Memorial 04241

Anonymous

Captain Charles Bean, I have heard and read so much about you and you in War. The reason I'm here today is as a reminder of my Grandpa in World War 2.

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Anonymous

Thank you for all your stories.

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Anonymous

After following CHARLES BEAN I now know he was special in making the War Memorial in Canberra.

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Anonymous

Hello Mr Bean. I am proud to be fellow Australian with this journalist. His bravery as a journalist can be reflected in many Australians' lives today.

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Anonymous

Lest we forget. Thank you for the service to Australia. Thank you for paying the ultimate price for your country.

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Audrey

Dear Bean, your records will help us understand the lives of these brave men and women.

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jjune baileY

I wonder if you knew my Dad. He was in the Royal Flying Corps, dispatch rider, and was often in No Man's Land.

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k.o.

Thank you for your dedication and your bravery during war.

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Anonymous

REST EASY CHARLES. Your records are safe with us.

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Anonymous

Believe me when I say you did your country proud. You will never be forgotten Bean, never. Thank you xx

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Anonymous

You decided to risk your life by going to war in order to provide information to the rest of the world. You were able to have a wonderful life from it too. Thank you.

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Anonymous

You are a very brave soldier.

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Anonymous

Thank you very much for your kindness and bravery.

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Phoebe

Thank you!

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Anonymous

Thank you for all the records you kept so that we could know first and what happened. YOU WILL NEVER BE FORGOTTEN.

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Anonymous

MY GRANDPA WHO ROWED THE AUSSIES ASHORE AT GABE TEPE WHO SERVED WITH NELSON BATTALION (BRITISH FORCES). I AM SO PROUD OF YOU.

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Ben

Thank you for your bravery.

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new zealand

thank you for writing about the war and for your bravery.

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val Barratt

thank you captain charles bean, you inspire us to never forget.. memories will live on.

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Isla Stanford

I am sad you had to go to war and see so much death. Thank you for going to war for me.

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lorraine piercy

well done charles xxx

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Elise

Dear captain charles bean, Thank you so much for saving our lives and Australia. Thanks be to god!

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pam haile

happy you wrote about the war and every one could know what you went through

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Anonymous

Thankyou for your bravery.

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Anonymous

thanks to all men and women willing to die for others and their country. God bless them all

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Anonymous

Well done and thankyou!

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paris

thank you for this journey

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Anonymous

Thankyou for allowing me the chance to get to know you a little CHARLES and for your amazing works

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chloe

thank you for the truth you brought back for those left behind. the war shouldn't have started.there never should have been a need for you. but thank you.

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Anonymous

A WONDERFUL RECOLLECTION OF CHARLES AND OF HIS BRAVERY

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Richard

your record of the war is very good

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terea foxton

THANK YOU
ALWAYS REMEMBERED

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Anonymous

WELL DONE AND THANKYOU.

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Anonymous

well done

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Anonymous

Thank you for our freedom. i am glad you are not around to witness the modern stupidity which continues in Syria today.

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Anonymous

IT IS WONDERFUL TO READ YOUR STORY

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Anonymous

ava we are at anzac

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angela

i love you poppy
xoxoxo

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Anonymous

YOU DID LOTS OF GOOD THINGS.THANKYOU!

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Anonymous

thank you for your dedication and heroism and for writing the truth for us to read

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Anonymous

Thank you Charles for your amazing contribution to the history of our nation. One hundred years later we are still so proud of our brave service men and women. LEST WE FORGET

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TIM

Something short and sweet, THANK YOU

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Anonymous

As a serving member of the RAN, we are all greatfull for all the heart breaking work you have done

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Anonymous

we are proud decendants of trooper barry 10th light horse, died as result of injury at bersheba

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